Student Resources

Chapter 1 – Psychology, science and research
This introduction sets the scene for research in psychology. Exercises Exercise 1.1 Some people say instantly ‘Oh it’s a picture of a man – so what?’. Many others (including me when I…

Chapter 2 – Measuring people – variables, samples and the qualitative critique
This chapter is an introduction to the language and concepts of measurement in social science. Exercises Exercise 2.1 Creating variables to measure psychological constructs In this exercise try to give at least…

Chapter 3 – Experiments and experimental designs in psychology
This chapter introduces the general concept of an experiment and goes on to outline basic uses of this design in psychological research. Exercises Exercise 3.1 The nature of experiments This is a…

Chapter 4 – Validity in psychological research
This chapter investigates issues of experimental validity and links this with the different threats to validity relevant to experiments, in particular, and to all research methods in general. Exercises Exercise 4.1 Tabatha…

Chapter 5 – Quasiexperiments and nonexperiments
This chapter discusses quasiexperiments, their limitations compared to true experiments, and the challenges to validity in various experimental designs. Exercises Exercise 5.1 Some outlines of research studies are given below and your…

Chapter 6 – Observational methods – watching and being with people
This chapter covers most methods that are generally classed as observation. Exercises Exercise 6.1 Select True or False for each item to test your understanding of observational methods. Further Information Festinger’s endoftheworld…

Chapter 7 – Interview methods – asking people direct questions
This chapter introduces general principles concerning the asking of questions. Exercises Exercise 7.1 Preparing an interview schedule Prepare a set of questions for an interview investigating the issue of assisted suicide. Imagine…

Chapter 8 – Psychological tests and measurement scales
This chapter looks at a variety of procedures for gathering data using some form of questionnaire, psychological scale or psychometric test.The content for this chapter has not been posted yet and is…

Chapter 9 – Comparison studies – crosssectional, longitudinal and crosscultural studies
This chapter looks at studies that are comparisons, either of the same people as they mature over longish periods or of several subgroup samples. Exercises Exercise 9.1 Have a go at this…

Chapter 10 – Qualitative approaches in psychology
This chapter presents a summary of qualitative researchers objections to the mainstream research model and summarises a variety of methods now commonly used in mainstream psychological research. Exercises Exercise 10.1 Chapter 10…

Chapter 11 – Ethical issues in psychological research
This chapter deals with the responsibilities borne by professional psychologists, whether their work is applied or research oriented. Exercises Exercise 11.1 Ethical issues in research designs What are the main ethical issues…

Chapter 12 – Analysing qualitative data
This chapter is a practical introduction to the methods employed by qualitative researchers for collecting, analysing and reporting their data. Exercises Exercise 12.1 Select true or false for each item to test…

Chapter 13 – Statistics – organising the data
This chapter introduces you to the kinds of procedures that are used to describe and to summarise quantities of data. Exercises Exercise 13.1 Identifying categorical and measured variables Decide in each case…

Chapter 14 – Graphical representation of data
This chapter deals with the representation of data sets in charts or graphs. Exercises Here is the datafile to be used for a boxplot as referred to in the exercises for this…

Chapter 15 – Frequencies and distributions
This chapter looks at how the authors deal with frequencies in sets of data and, in particular, with the properties and use of the normal distribution. Exercises Exercise 15.1 z scores A…

Chapter 16 – Significance testing – was it a real effect?
This chapter is about the principles of significance testing. Exercises Exercise 16.1 One or twotailed tests In each case below decide whether the research prediction permits a onetailed test or whether a…

Chapter 17 – Testing for differences between two samples
This chapter introduces statistical tests for assessing the significance of differences between two samples and also introduces calculations of effect size and power. Exercises Here are the data sets, in SPSS and…

Chapter 18 – Tests for categorical variables and frequency tables
This chapter discusses the use of the chisquare test to analyze categorical data, and the analysis of multiway tables using loglinear analysis. Exercises Exercise 18.1 A 2 x 2 chisquare analysis Individual…

Chapter 19 – Correlation
This chapter explores positive and negative correlations. Exercises Exercise 19.1 Scatter plots Have a look at the scatter plots below and select a description in terms of strength (weak, moderate, strong) and…

Chapter 20 – Regression methods
This chapter introduces the readers to the process of predicting values of a ‘criterion’ variable from values of a ‘predictor’ variable. Exercises Exercise 20.1 Multiple regression practice The data set for the…

Chapter 21 – Factor analysis
This chapter introduces the basic concepts of factor analysis and details how to carry out an exploratory factor analysis procedure in SPSS. Exercises Exercise 21.1 In this chapter we carried out an…

Chapter 22 – Multilevel analysis – differences between more than two conditions (ANOVA)
In this chapter we look at designs where there is one independent variable but with more than two levels. Exercises Here is the data file oneway ANOVA caffeine.sav used in the main…

Chapter 23 – Multifactorial ANOVA designs
This chapter deals with between groups multifactorial ANOVA, where more than one independent variable is manipulated or observed. Exercises Exercise 23.1 Calculating two way unrelated ANOVA on a new data set The…

Chapter 24 – ANOVA for repeated measures designs
This chapter deals with analyses using ANOVA when at least one of the factors is related – that is, a repeated measures or matched pairs factor (independent variable) has been used. Exercises…

Chapter 25 – Choosing a significance test for your data
This chapter takes the readers through the criteria for choosing an appropriate test of significance for the data they have obtained and the effect they are investigating. Exercises Exercise 25.1 Identifying simple…

Chapter 26 – Planning your practical and writing up your report
If you are devising and running your own practical work in psychology, good luck! It is highly satisfying to complete a project that was your own initial idea and that you have…